If I’m understanding your question right, you want to optimize AdWords search and display campaigns based on metrics other than conversions?
If that’s true, your first step is deciding on what success looks like for your campaigns. If it isn’t conversions is it:
c. Phone calls?
d. Website traffic?
e. CPC or CPM?
I should point out that many of these things are not ideal for gauging the success of most campaigns but they can be for some.
Each one of these is going to have its own set of strategies for optimization.
CTR: For search this has a lot to do with the relevance among your ads, your keywords and your landing page. The ad copy you use and the max CPC for keywords (as well as how your keywords are configured) are all areas you should be looking at to increase search CTR. For display, your placements, your targeting, your ad creative/copy and relevance of your landing page are all contributing factors to how well a campaign performs.
Impressions: If the name of the game is brand awareness, targeting and budget should be your focus. Pure branding campaigns tend to burn through cash (especially on Google’s platform). You also should configure your targeting to reach as many relevant people as possible without fully jumping into a shotgun approach.
Phone Calls: If you’re trying to generate phone calls, use phone call extensions on your desktop and mobile ads and also consider doing a call-only campaign on mobile. You might even try sneaking a phone number into your ad (although Google may have put a stop to that). Make sure your phone number is prominent on your landing page (such as large in the header) and design your landing page around getting phone calls.
Website Traffic: Driving traffic to your website through search or display is a combination of getting seen (relevance and adequate budget) and also compelling ad creative/copy. You have to write/design ads that entice people to want to click. Check out Facebook once and a while and you’ll see tons of marketers using the click-bait approach. That’s a little extreme but it could give you ideas on what the masses like to interact with.
CPC or CPM: If you’re trying to get your cost per click or cost per thousand impressions down, ad relevance and click through rate are key.